ACTIVITY PROFILE BETWEEN LOSERS AND WINNERS IN MALE SILAT OLAHRAGA CLASS A SEA GAMES 2015

1.0  ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to identify the activity profile between winners and losers in Silat competition between Indonesia versus Philippines, Indonesia versus Singapore, Malaysia versus Thailand, and Indonesia versus Vietnam in SEA Games in Singapore 2015. In this study, the category of the Silat athletes is Class A, Men (50 kg). To analyze successful technique use by the athletes such as punch, kicking, and blocking, videos of the match in Quarter Final 1, Quarter Final 2, Semi Final 1 and Final Class A, Men (50kg) will be analyze to know whether the techniques hit the target, hit elsewhere or miss opponent. For the statistical analysis of the winner, the number of topple and sweep done by the silat exponent more than the loser. Therefore, they have obtained higher points than the loser in Male Class A (50kg) Silat Olahraga Sea Games 2015. All the raw data collected from the all matches used the system produced by (Shapie et al., 2013). The descriptive analysis was used to determine the difference performance between the winner and loser in silat match.
  


2.0  INTRODUCTION

Silat is a term used to describe a form of martial art practiced throughout the Malay Archipelago (Shapie & Elias, 2016). Silat is well established in the traditions and culture of Malaysian. This tradition were practiced in Asian country such as Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, Philippines and Malaysia. Silat was promoted more among the royal families and dynasties in Malaysian culture. Native Malaysian will use Silat as the mark of their superiority and power over the others. During ancient time, Silat was the mark of authority and ultimate.

Nowadays, Silat Malaysia is a very well- known martial art to the world. There are seven different levels that can be identified and ranked using belts system starting from white, blue, brown, yellow, green, red, and black belt. They need to majoring seven different topics such as Bunga, Jurus, Belebat, Tapak, Buah Pukul, Tempur Seni, and Tempur Bela Diri. In Silat, the individual will learn different techniques of attacking and defensive skill such as Elakkan (avoiding technique movements), Tangkisan (blocking techniques), Tangkapan (catching techniques), Potong (counter-strike), Amuk (go berserk with diligent).

In 1980, silat has taken part in the first Silat Olahraga Pencak Silat competition in Singapore. Then Pencak Silat competition introduced two new competitions which are Silat Seni and Silat Olahraga.

In the rule of Silat Olahraga, there are basic commands, time for each match, target are to attack the opponent, and the scoring point for each of the area that attacked. For basic commands, ‘wasit’ which is referee will call the command ‘sedia’, meaning ‘ready’. Then the referee will shout ‘mula’ meaning ‘begin’. Immediately the ‘gong’ will be hit. When the wasit wants to stop the match, he will call ‘berhenti’ meaning ‘stop’. When the fighters step out the ring, the wasit will stop the fight and bring the fighters back to the center. If the Silat athletes repeatedly steps outside the ring, especially if he’s stepping backwards, the wasit may penalizing the athletes point. If he repeated the fault, 2 penalty point will be given. If the athletes still continues to step out the ring, the wasit may decide to end the fight and claim his opponent as the winners. There are three rounds of fighting, two minutes every round, with 1 minute rest between each round.

For the scoring system, the fighter are allowed to attack any parts of the body except the groin and the neck above. Nevertheless, only one score points if one hits the body padding or back. A kick will score two points, while a punch will score 1 point. A takedown will earn three points. Elbowing or knee strikes are prohibited. Takedown can be seen when the opponent kick or punches, the exponent grabs ant parts of the limbs, and make the opponent fall. Three points will be given if the exponent did not fall. If the opponent pulls him down during the technique, the exponent may roll forward, so avoiding falling on top of his opponent. He will still get three points. If the opponent attacks and the exponent block the attack and counterattack with a kick, he will get three points. Same goes with punches two points and takedown four points. If the fighters can punches, kick, and takedowns in one round to their opponent he will get six points for that round.


3.0  MATERIAL AND METHODS

In this study, the data will be analyzed based on match record in video for Pencak Silat Tanding Men’s Semi Finals Match Class A (45 to 50 kg) between Indonesia vs Philippine in SEA Games Singapore 2015. This video will be analyze based on the specific skills of the athletes such as punching, kicking, blocking, and topple either they hit the target, hit elsewhere, or miss opponent. Thus, the frequency, mean and percentage of total time were subsequently calculated. According to Shapie M.N.M. et al., (2013), there are 14 different types of categories of Silat exponent’s motion:
  •          Punch

Punch ‘tumbuk’ attack is done by a hand with a closed fist hitting the target. It can be a straight punch ‘tumbuk lurus’ or uppercut ‘sauk’ to the exponent body’s.
  •         Kick

The kick ‘tendang’ is attacking movement which is performed with one or two legs simultaneously. A kick can be front kick ‘tendang depan’, side-kick ‘depak’ or semi-circular side kick ‘tendang lengkar’.
  •        Block

Blocking movements start with posture position ‘sikap pasang’, the opponent stands straight with his hands around his body or close to his chest. Blocking ‘tangkisan’ can be done using arms, elbows and legs to block or striking back at any attack.

·         Catch
The catch ‘tangkapan’ is using the hand to obstruct the opponent from carrying out an attack. The silat ex-ponent is able to prevent himself from being attacked by pointing the attack which he has caught another direction.

·         Topple
A silat exponent ‘pesilat’ can either push, shove the opponent’s back leg from the back or from the side, shove, hit, kick, strike or punch to make the opponent lose his balance. Every fall will considered valid as long the silat exponent topples his opponent down without wrestling or he is able to overpower the opponent whom he has brought down.
·         Sweep
Swiping ‘sapuan’ is attacking an opponent’s leg which are on the ground to unstabilise him and bring down to the ground. A silat exponent can perform this attacking movement either with his right or left leg. Front sweep ‘sapuan depan’ is done by swinging the leg to the front to push an opponent’s front leg, while back sweep ‘sapuan belakang’ is carried out by swinging the leg backward to hit the back leg.
·         Dodge/evade
Evade ‘elakan’ is technique by silat exponent when he tries to evade an attack. This technique dies bit require the silat exponent to touch the opponent in fending off the attack. There are many ways of defensive movement such as dodging ‘gelek’, retreat ‘mundur’, evasion ‘elak sisi’, bending ‘elak serung’, jumping ‘lonjak’, ducking ‘susup’     and etc.
·         Self-Release
Self-release ‘lepas tangkapan’ technique to unlock any clinch or catch from an opponent.
·         Block and Punch
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the hand to punch the opponent.
·         Block and Kick
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the leg to kick the opponent.
·         Block and Sweep
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the leg to kick the opponent.
·         Fake Punch
An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake punch to break his opponent’s defensive posture.
·         Fake kick
An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake kick to break his opponent defensive posture.

Reliability of observation
The author analyzed all the activities and simultaneously classified each change of motion in a single match. Two observations were done separated by 48 hours. It requires experienced silat practitioners to analyze the data as the movement of both exponents is fast, needing close inspection. The classification of movement was subjective with work being classified according to the instruction given by the referee.

4.0  STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
The observation generated data will be frequency counted. All the raw data was exported into Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet and then transferred into SPSS for analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Scientist, version 22.0. A descriptive analysis was used to determine the difference between the winners and losers in Silat Olahraga Men’s Class A (50KG) SEA Games 2015 matches.

5.0  RESULTS

Table below shows the results of 13 techniques that combine between winners and losers for Quarter Final Match Indonesia versus Singapore, Quarter Final Match Malaysia versus Thailand, Semi Final Match Indonesia versus Philippines, and Final Indonesia versus Vietnam Class A (45-50 kg) in SEA Games Singapore 2015.


Table 5.1.1: Indonesia vs Philippines (Indonesia won)
Actions
Outcome
Hit target

Hit elsewhere
Miss opponent
Total
PHI
INA
PHI
INA
PHI
INA

Block
2
3




5
Block and Kick







Block and Punch







Block and Sweep

1




1
Kick
9
7
6
6
4
1
33
Fake kick

1




1
Punch
2
2
4

1

9
Fake punch







Self-release
1





1
Topple

3



1
4
Sweep
1
8


5
4
18
Catch

6




6
Dodge

3




3
Total
15
34
10
6
10
6
8


























Table 5.1.2: Mean, standard deviation scores for Indonesia and Philippines


Group Statistics
Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Score
INA
3
8.33
9.292
5.364
PHI
3
7.00
5.364
4.041







Table 5.1.3: Indonesia VS Vietnam (Vietnam won)
Action
Hit Target
Hit Elsewhere
Miss Target
Total
Lose
Win
Lose
Win
Lose
Win
Block
1




1
2
Block and kick







Block and punch







Block and sweep







Kick
4
4
3
6
1

18
Fake Kick
3
2




5
Punch



1


1
Fake Punch
2
1




3
Self-release
1
2


2
3
8
Topple
1
1



1
3
Sweep
4
4
5
9

3
25
Catch

5
3
1


9
Dodge
7
1
3
1
1

13
Others







Total
23
20
14
18
4
8
87




Table 5.1.4: Mean, standard deviation scores for Indonesia and Vietnam

Score
Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
INA
3
13.666
3.8222
VIET
3
15.333
2.4015


                                     
                                     Table 5.1.5: Singapore vs Indonesia (Indonesia Won)

Action
Hit Target
Hit Elsewhere
Miss Opponent
SING
INA
SING
INA
SING
INA
Block & Punch
Block & Kick
Block & Sweep
Block
7
0
Kick
14
18
6
3
0
2
Fake Kick
2
1
Punch
9
8
5
0
3
3
Fake Punch
Topple
2
3
0
4
Catch
0
5
4
0
Dodge
0
2
1
0
Sweep
1
2
0
1
4
9
Self-Release
Total
26
38
18
4
14
18
58
60


























  


Table 5.1.6: Mean, standard deviation scores for Indonesia and Singapore

Group Statistics
Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Score
INA
3
20.0000
17.08801
9.86577
SING
3
19.3333
6.11010
3.52767



Table 5.1.7: Malaysia vs Thailand (Malaysia Won)

Action
Hit Target
Hit Elsewhere
Miss Opponent
MAS
THAI
MAS
THAI
MAS
THAI
Block & Punch
Block & Kick
1
Block & Sweep
Block
2
3
Kick
9
4
4
5
4
2
Fake Kick
Punch
6
5
2
3
3
2
Fake Punch
Topple
2
3
2
2
2
2
Catch
8
3
2
2
1
Dodge
6
5
1
Sweep
3
2
2
3
2
Self-Release
4
7
1
2
Total
40
30
13
15
15
8
68
53


























Table 5.1.8: Mean, standard deviation scores for Malaysia and Thailand


Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Score

Mas
3
7.11
3.516
.874
                         
Thai
3
6.4
3.323
.911










Frequency table 5.2.1 Indonesia vs Philippines (Men’s 50kg Class A) (Indonesia Won)
Exponent
Punch
Kick
Sweep
Topple
Total
Winner
2
19
12
4
37
Loser
7
14
6
0
27



Frequency Table 5.2.2 Indonesia Vs Singapore (Men’s 50kg Class A) (Indonesia Won)
Exponent
Punch
Kick
Sweep
Topple
Total
Winners
11
23
12
7
53
Loser
17
20
5
2
44







Frequency Table 5.2.3 Malaysia Vs Thailand (Men’s 50kg Class A) (Malaysia Won)
Exponent
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Total
Winner
5
39
4
48
Loser
4
31
5
40



Frequency Table 5.2.4 Indonesia Vs Vietnam (Men’s 50kg Class A) (Vietnam Won)
Exponent
Punch
Kick
Sweep
Topple
Total
Loser

8
9
1
18
Winner
1
10
16
2
29




6.0  DISCUSSION

            Based on the data above, the data shows 4 tables of match in Silat Olahraga Men’s 50kg Class A and for the 4 team. The technique for the both fighter during the match for every round has been notated in 14 motion categories for each movement they deliver to the opponent. The specific skills of the silat olahraga athletes will be selected and be determined by their techniques that causes them to win and lose the match.

            In Quarter Final Match Men’s Class A between Malaysia and Thailand, the numbers of kicking hit the opponent were higher for Malaysia which is 9 kicking than Thailand only 4 kick hit on target. Malaysia Silat Olahraga athlete also have higher catch with 8 catches while Thailand silat exponent only earned 3 catches. This may contribute to the result of the match, as catching would help the Malaysia Silat olahraga athlete to prevent the opponent to earn points when hit the target.

The results of winning for match men’s 50kg Class A between Indonesia versus Philippines in term of the technique is by their sweep and topples. This technique has a high point than punch and kick. Overall their winning game was controlled by hit target on a sweep and topples. The number hit a target of sweep and topples of Indonesian Silat Olahraga athlete were dominance compared to the Philippines. Eight successful sweep and three successful topple by Indonesian Silat Olahraga athlete shows that this athlete have higher skill and leg power to drop the opponent. This were supported by Abdul Rasyid, Benedict Tan, Kong Chuan Teh (2002) stated silat exponent have better explosive leg power when perform in short duration high-intensity exercise. Sweep and topples are a very effective technique to gain an extra point during the match.

Analysis on Semi Final men’s Class A between Indonesia versus Singapore shows Indonesia exponent earned many points from kicking which is 18 kicking on target, while 14 kicking on target for Singapore exponent. Also, Indonesia exponent have higher skills in catching and dodge, as it may help the silat exponent to prevent himself from the hit.

In Final for match for men’s 50kg Class A, the causes of technique that lead to losing were kicking and sweep. This match was won by Vietnam. The number hit the target of kicking and sweep were dominance compare to the Indonesian. Consequently, Indonesia kicking and sweep are 8 and 9, while Vietnam has 10 punch and 16 sweep, which shows huge different than Indonesia only 9 sweep. The difference between sweep techniques for both opponents can determine the win and loss at the last round of the match when the game an fast and intense matches. The silat games need high expenditure energy level to perform in short period of time. Another factor has exponent had an ability to read opponent technique to hit the specific target. Therefore, timing, power and accuracy training should balance with a punch and sweep training to increase the performance in silat.


7.0  CONCLUSION
In conclusion, this study examine the techniques used by both exponents Silat Olahraga Sea Games 2015 to see whether techniques like kick, topple, punch hit the target, hit elsewhere, or miss opponent. An exponents with a less error may have higher scores in the matches. Besides, the athletes need to improve their muscular speed, agility, and power as the video indicates these athletes might have slower reaction to reacts to the opponent’s movement. So, the athletes need to do more training on explosive strength to develop muscular power and performance endurance because martial art required high intensity action movements (Danny Lum et.,al 2016). While the winner shows highly skills especially when to topple his opponents. This shows quickness, agility, power is important to success in martial art.



8.0  REFERENCES

Aziz, A. R., Tan, B., & Teh, K. C. (2002). Physiological Responses During Matches and Profile of Elite Pencak Silat Exponents. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine1(4), 147–155.
Choi, E.-H., Yoo, W.-K., Ohn, S. H., Ahn, S., Kim, H. J., & Jung, K.-I. (2016). Enhancement of motor coordination by applying high frequency repetitive tms on the sensory cortex. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 28, 17-22. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2016.02.008
Danny Lum, Frankie Tan, Joel Pang, Tiago M. Barbosa, Effects of intermittent sprint and plyometric training on endurance running performance, In Journal of Sport and Health Science, 2016, , ISSN 2095-2546, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.005.
Fattorini, L., Tirabasso, A., Lunghi, A., Di Giovanni, R., Sacco, F., & Marchetti, E. Muscular synchronization and hand-arm fatigue. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2016.07.009
Shapie, (2010). Silat Malaysia – The History and Development of Malay Martial Arts. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Silat-Malaysia---The-History-and-Development-of-Malay-Martial-Arts&id=4858442
Shapie, (2010). Three Fighting Secrets to Topple Down Your Opponent Easily In Silat Olahraga Match. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Three-Fighting-Secrets-To-Topple-Down-Your-Opponent-Easily-In-Silat-Olahraga-Match&id=5536517
The Silat Olahraga. (2013). Retrieved from https://malaymartialarts-silat.blogspot.my/2013/05/the-silat-olahraga.html
Shapie MNM, Oliver J, O’Donoghue PG, Tong R (2013). Activity profile during action time in national silat competition.   http://combatsports.edu.pl/abstracted.php?level=5&ICID=1073630
Shapie, M. N. M. (2011). Influence of Age and Maturation on Fitness Development, Trainability and Competitive Performance in Youth Silat. Cardiff Metropolitan University. 
Sport Singapore (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men’s Class A Semi Final Indonesia vs Philippines. Retrieved at December 8, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s5JphsM7YiU&t=9s
Shapie, M. N. M., & Elias, M. S. (2016). Silat: The curriculum of seni silat malaysia. Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 11(2s), 122. doi:10.18002/rama.v11i2s.4202
Sport Singapore (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men’s Class A Final Indonesia vs Vietnam. Retrieved at December 8, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TogWi7jsKcU
Sport Singapore (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men’s Class A Quarterfinal Indonesia vs Singapore. Retrieved at December 8, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdKHSsMioug
Sport Singapore (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men’s Class A Quarterfinal Malaysia vs Thailand. Retrieved at December 8, 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6eruVei7Pdg



Comments

Popular posts from this blog